Thursday, 14 July 2016

Master key technology on Oyster mushroom cultivation and grow more Oyster mushrooms in spring

In spring, fully utilizing natural climate condition and enhancing the management in fruiting period can not only increase output by a large margin, but also can reduce the occurrence rate of all diseases and pest and increase total benefit.

A. Artificial temperature-increasing: when greenhouse temperature is under 8 degrees, Oyster mushrooms will have slow growth trend, when the temperature is under 4 degrees, the growth will be inhibited. In order to guarantee the normal growth of Oyster mushroom, it is best to keep greenhouse temperature between 10 and 20 degrees, people could adopt hand firing or other measures to increase temperature. During this period, Carbon dioxide and other harmful substances should be discharged in time.

B. Reasonable humidity-increasing: in fruiting period of spring, the suitable growth temperature is between 10 and 25 degrees, people could increase relative air humidity to about 85%, reduce direct sunlight and prevent too high temperature and too humidity in fruiting environment. People should also spray water for 1 to 3 times in accordance with the change of temperature to guarantee the humidity in greenhouse, but excessive water-spraying should be avoided and it is proper to keep relative air humidity of greenhouse under 95%.

C. Increase ventilation: ventilation is contradictory with heat preservation. In low temperature, Oyster mushrooms can’t grow, but poor ventilation will cause sick and abnormal mushrooms. So, people should coordinate heat preservation with ventilation to guarantee normal growth of Oyster mushroom. In general situation, people should increase ventilation in high temperature and reduce ventilation in low temperature.

D. Moderately use production promoter: there are various production promoters in the market, their mixing methods are manifold. People should use them in accordance with specified dosage.

E. Supplement moisture of mushroom bags in time: in fruiting period, direct exposure on both sides of compost will cause constant losing. It will affect normal fruiting when loosing half of moisture in compost. Normally, after fruiting two flushes, surface will become hydropenic and dry, which can cause cracks and become hard to get fruited. On that occasion, farmers should supplement moisture in time. At present, common methods on moisturizing are Soaking Supplement Method and Pressure Supplement Method. Soaking Supplement Method is to pour prepared nutrient solution to pool or special vessel to retain water, use iron bar to punch on surface of mushroom bag. Soaking should be remained for 4 to 8 hours generally and make water-soaked weight reach 90% of original weight. Pressure Supplement Method is to use specialized moisturizing needle of Oyster mushroom that is linked to agroatomizer, one side of this kind of needle presents needle-shape of infection, other side is linked with water let, people insert moisturizing needle in compost and press the pressure rod of atomizer, so nutrition of atomizer will be injected to mushroom sacks of Oyster mushroom by certain pressure, which plays the role of supplementing moisture and nutrition. In general, each bag needs 3 holes, people can also equip water pump to increase water pressure, utilize multiport water replenisher to speed up the efficiency of moisturizing.

F. Timely picking: when finding white nap, people could pick Oyster mushrooms ahead of time , too late picking will cause aging, lower resistibility, lower crush capacity, lower putrescibility and quality reduction in mushroom context.

Why mushrooms appear yellow ?

1. Pathogenic bacterias are Mycogone perniciosa Magn, Verticillium fungicola and heteromorphic Cladobotrun varium, which possess strong viability, have low temperature resistance and pleased to high humidity. They can grow in about 10 degrees and are common bacterias from late autumn to early spring. 
2. Occurrence reason: improper management in low temperature season is the main reason, in low temperature season, humidity in greenhouse may be excessive, and water-spraying is excessive. Free water is adhered to mushroom bodies, after water absorption, it cannot evaporate, which results in the reduction of metabolism, all bacterias got chances to step in, make mass propagation, (and)cause various disease of sporocarps. The second reason is the continuous chilling weather causes too low temperature in greenhouse, sporocarps are in poor living environment for a long time. The third reason is that for some mushroom varieties, when fruiting period is in 3 or 4 flush, mushroom sacks are in malnutrition, after budding, sporocarps cannot get sufficient nutrient supplement, which results in the phenomenon of yellow and death.
3. Common prevention and control method: 
A. People should frequently spray various insecticides once a week.
B. When the temperature of greenhouse is too low, people should avoid excessive water spraying and guarantee a suitable humidity that can meet the need of normal growth.
C. Try to increase the temperature of mushroom greenhouse, take Oyster mushroom as an example, it is best to keep temperature of greenhouse above 15 degrees at daytime.
D. People should fully understand temperature types, normal growing temperatures of various mushroom varieties and conduct correct management.
E. People should always spray various promoters in mushroom bodies.
F. When finding diseases , people could spray bactericides to control integratedly.

Seven attentions on disease and pest control of Button mushroom

1. Do a great job in sanitation: normal health service management system should be given to staffs on strain-making and operation, people should constantly clean pollutant, add drugs to sterilize. Mushroom house, tools and all equipment in cultivation room should be sterilized and washed. Some points on shoe sole and cloth should not be ignored.
2. Choose ways on sterilization: people can give priority to high-pressure steam sterilization, atmospheric intermittent sterilization, pasteurization and ultraviolet lamp sterilization in physical sterilization, give priority to alkaline, phenols drugs in chemical sterilization. People should avoid heavy metal salt sanitizers.
3. Good disposal on raw material: damp, mould, pests should be avoided in compost of Button mushroom, people should place plastic film or felt at the bottom to guard against damp, cover the top to prevent rain or sundries. Chicken manure, cow dung, rice bran and wheat bran are easy to breed mildew and should be kept airtightly. Compost should be went through high temperature disinfection. People should insist on doing well in secondary fermentation. Materials for earthing up should be sterilized by Formalin or steam.
4. Adjust water volume and PH Value: water volume should be proper, PH Value should be suitable. People should check and adjust all times, keep good ventilation and keep relative air humidity under 95%.
5. Keep substrate properly: people should protect bottles and sterilized substrate properly to prevent secondary pollution, cover gauze or thin film. Dust pollution should be prevented as well.
6. Strictly perform operation procedures: inoculation work has high technology and should be patiently and carefully treated. People should wash cleanly and fumigate thoroughly on all tools and vessels, ethyl alcohol also can be utilized in this kind of work.
7. Adopt artificial physical methods method to prevent disease and pests. For example, black light lamp can be used to trap and kill mosquitoes and flies, when finding rotten part, people should remove timely and sterilize with lime water. People should also improve circumstances, adjust temperature (to prevent Diehliomycesmicropours), humidity (to prevent Neurospora) and PH Value (to prevent Mucor).

Why little knots always happen in caps of Oyster mushroom?

In the cultivation process of Oyster mushroom, some little knots always happen in caps of Oyster mushroom, this kind of phenomenon may happen in every winter, which may be because:
1. Low temperature, high humidity and poor ventilation. In low temperature, poor ventilation, high humidity in greenhouse and small amount of evaporation will cause a layer of water film on the surface of mushroom caps.
2. Temperature shock, excessive temperature differentials, high temperature at daytime, temperature shock at night and uneven growth of cell on mushroom caps.
Prevention method: 
A. People could increase temperature and keep warm. In low temperature season, people should adopt heating measures to balance the growing of sporocarp when the temperature of greenhouse is relatively low at night. At the same time, people should also pay attention to the measure of heat preservation to reduce the heat loss of mushroom greenhouse and try to avoid the stimulation of sporocarp, which may be caused by low temperature.
B. Reduce the amount of water-spraying, pay attention to the ventilation after spraying water. In low temperature season, it is improper to spray water repeatedly and it is proper to spray water for one time per day. People should also give ventilation after spraying water and avoid excessive water in mushroom caps.

Cooling method and precautions of mushroom greenhouse in summer

Although various regions situations are different green house cooling has six ways: sun-shade cooling, wet curtain and fan cooling, micro-fog cooling, natural ventilation cooling, spray cooling from roof and equipment cooling such as air-conditioner.
1. Sun-shade cooling
At present in practical production most adopted method is sun-shade cooling, which could block redundant sunlight and protect the crop from burning by strong light, and create suitable growth conditions for the crop. Sun-shade methods are various, some cover with sunshade net to cool, some splash mud or spill ink on shed film to cool. 
We need pay attention to that different sunshade methods have different sunshade effects, most commonly used is sunshade net. Its main function is obstructing strong light and cooling shed temperature, in the market there are two kinds of black and silver gray. Shading coefficient of Black sunshade net is high and could cool quickly, it is suitable to be used for short-term cover on field parcel which need fine management. Shading coefficient of silver gray net is low, it is suitable to be use for positive vegetables and long-term cover. They can be distinguished by color or by texture.
2. Wet curtain and fan cooling
The cooling method that utilizes temperature cooling theory of water evaporation and is matched with using related equipment to conduct ventilation is called wet curtain and fan. Wet curtain and fan use temperature cooling theory of water evaporation to realize the goal of cooling. Although wet curtain and fan have low cost than air-conditioner, it need equipped with corresponding equipment. When cooling open fan, the fan will extract compulsorily the air in greenhouse and form negative pressure; at the same time water pump will pour water on wet curtain. When outdoor air is inhaled in by negative pressure, it will pass through the gap of wet curtain, during pass the air will exchange with the steam on wet medium surface, the air sensible heat will be changed into latent heat of vaporization, then water is evaporated and realize cooling, cold air flows through greenhouse, after absorbing indoor heat the air is exhausted with the fan, therefore achieve cooling. 
3. Micro-fog cooling
Micro-fog cooling is to spray water with fog droplets state of micron-grade or 10 micron-grades into greenhouse, make it evaporate quickly, and utilize high latent heat of water evaporation, greatly absorb air heat, and then discharge moister air out of greenhouse and achieve cooling. Although it seems there are no unreasonable, this way will increase humidity in greenhouse, so when encountering “sauna weather” in north and air humidity is high itself, this way should not be adopted. 
4. Natural ventilation cooling
Generally ventilation has three aims: first is to discharge and decrease heat so as to cool; second is to exclude water; third is to adjust air ingredients in greenhouse, discharge harmful air and improve CO2 content. In summer indoor cooling is its main aim. Natural ventilation usually sets up windows on the roof or wall of greenhouse, ventilate with hot-pressing or wind pressure, and adjust window-open degree to regulate ventilation quantity.
5. Spray cooling from roof
Spray cooling from roof is adopted by many farmers, but it should be subject to water source condition. We need pay attention to that if spray system is designed reasonably directly affect water saving effect, in general spray system mainly includes: water source, pressing(controlling) equipment, pipelines and shower nozzle.
6. Equipment cooling such as air-conditioner
If you ask which way of greenhouse cooling is the simplest? I believe many friends will choose air-conditioner. Indeed from effect of dehumidification and cooling, using air-conditioner is the best. But this way the cost is high, at present using air conditioning system as greenhouse temperature control system is very few.
In hot summer the temperature of greenhouse sometimes will reach over 40℃, if not conducting cooling treatment it will cause disadvantageous influence on crops. Above methods are only for reference, some cooling methods need prepare in advance such as spray system and water net. In addition i would like to remind farmer friends that with temperature increase you should well manage greenhouse and prevent drought and pest and disease damage.

Technology on cultivating Oyster mushroom by soybean curb residue

Soybean curb residue has abundant nutrition. According to determination, soybean curb residue with water content of 50% contains 11.3% of protein, 6.1% of fat, 7.4% of cellulose, 22.3% of saccharic and 2.9% of ash content. Because of soybean curb residue contains more protein, carbohydrate, it can shorten cultivation time and increase output of sporocarp. Adding it to other compost can economically reduce the utilize of rice bran and wheat bran.
Technology on cultivating Oyster mushroom by soybean curb residue is easy and should be conducted in low-temperature season. When the water content of soybean curb residue is about 85%, it has to be desiccated to below 60% or completely dried when cultivating. Then adjust the water content to 60%. The formula is 27 to 37 kg of cottonseed hull, straw or rice hull, 3 kg of lime powder, 50 kg of water and 100g of carbendazim, then adjust water content to 60%. People can adopt plastic bag cultivation method, conduct spawn-running and fruiting in accordance with common method.

Some tricks to increase the production of mushroom When cultivating mushroom, people can adopt some special methods to increase production.

1. Utilize medicine: when preparing basic material of mushroom, people can add moderate Sulfate, Phosphate, Vitamin B1 and spray 0.1 to 0.3mg per litre of Triacontanol on the surface in later period of spawn running to promote the growth of fruiting and sporocarp. In general, this method can increase the production of 15%.
2. Burrow and fill sand: when sowing, people can use conical stick with the diameter of 1.5 cm and the length of 30 cm to burrow in accordance with the standard of 30cm and quincunx. After 2 days, people should fill yellow sand and 0.3% to 0.5% of lime water. This method can improve the permeability of mushroom bed, improve water retention capacity. What’s more, it can also get fruited 3 to 4 days in advance.
3. Pressure stimulation: use old newspaper, hessian cloth and fine soil to cover on the surface of compost. This method can increase the production of 15%.
4. Plunger contact: use sterile stick (diameter is 1 cm and the length is 3 cm) to insert compost ( the depth is 2cm and the density is 15*15 cm). This method can increase the production of 20%.
5. Mycelium stimulation and increase buds: after growing full spawn, people can use clean bamboo broom to slightly sweep the surface to remove old spawn. When growing new spawn, people should spray water timely and cover plastic film to moisturize and keep warm. New buds will appear after about 7 days. This method can promote the time of fruiting and increase the production of 10%.